Créditos: Comité científico CovidLeer más
Background As of August 21, 2021, >60% of the U.S. population aged ≥18 years were fully vaccinated with vaccines highly effective in preventing hospitalization due to Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). Infection despite full vaccination (vaccine breakthrough) has been reported, but characteristics of those with vaccine breakthrough resulting in hospitalization and relative rates of hospitalization in unvaccinated and vaccinated persons are not well described, including during late June and July 2021 when the highly transmissible Delta variant predominated.
Methods From January 1–June 30, 2021, cases defined as adults aged ≥18 years with laboratory-confirmed Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were identified from >250 acute care hospitals in the population-based COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET). Through chart review for sampled cases, we examine characteristics associated with vaccination breakthrough. From January 24–July 24, 2021, state immunization information system data linked to both >37,000 cases representative cases and the defined surveillance catchment area population were used to compare weekly hospitalization rates in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. Unweighted case counts and weighted percentages are presented.
Results From January 1 – June 30, 2021, fully vaccinated cases increased from 1 (0.01%) to 321 (16.1%) per month. Among 4,732 sampled cases, fully vaccinated persons admitted with COVID-19 were older compared with unvaccinated persons (median age 73 years [Interquartile Range (IQR) 65-80] v. 59 years [IQR 48-70]; p<0.001), more likely to have 3 or more underlying medical conditions (201 (70.8%) v. 2,305 (56.1%), respectively; p<0.001) and be residents of long-term care facilities [37 (14.5%) v. 146 (5.5%), respectively; p<0.001]. From January 24 – July 24, 2021, cumulative hospitalization rates were 17 times higher in unvaccinated persons compared with vaccinated persons (423 cases per 100,000 population v. 26 per 100,000 population, respectively); rate ratios were 23, 22 and 13 for those aged 18-49, 50-64, and ≥65 years respectively. For June 27 – July 24, hospitalization rates were ≥10 times higher in unvaccinated persons compared with vaccinated persons for all age groups across all weeks.
Conclusion Population-based hospitalization rates show that unvaccinated adults aged ≥18 years are 17 times more likely to be hospitalized compared with vaccinated adults. Rates are far higher in unvaccinated persons in all adult age groups, including during a period when the Delta variant was the predominant strain of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Vaccines continue to play a critical role in preventing serious COVID-19 illness and remain highly effective in preventing COVID-19 hospitalizations.
Competing Interest Statement
All authors have completed and submitted the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors form for disclosure of potential conflicts of interest. Evan J. Anderson reports grants from Pfizer, grants from Merck, grants from PaxVax, grants from Micron, grants from Sanofi-Pasteur, grants from Janssen, grants from MedImmune, grants from GSK, personal fees from Sanofi-Pasteur, personal fees from Pfizer, personal fees from Medscape, personal fees from Kentucky Bioprocessing, Inc, personal fees from Sanofi-Pasteur, personal fees from Janssen, outside the submitted work; and his institution has also received funding from NIH to conduct clinical trials of Moderna and Janssen COVID-19 vaccines. Ruth Lynfield reports Associate Editor for American Academy of Pediatrics Red Book (Committee on Infectious Diseases), donated fee to Minnesota Department of Health. Laurie M. Billing reports grants from Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE), during the conduct of the study; grants from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) outside the submitted work. William Schaffner reports personal fees from VBI Vaccines, outside the submitted work. No other potential conflicts of interest were disclosed.
This work was supported by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention through an Emerging Infections Program cooperative agreement (grant CK17-1701) and through a Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists cooperative agreement (grant NU38OT000297-02-00).
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Créditos: Comité científico Covid