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Background The COVID-19 pandemic has caused substantial morbidity and mortality.
Objectives To describe monthly demographic and clinical trends among adults hospitalized with COVID-19.
Design Pooled cross-sectional.
Setting 99 counties within 14 states participating in the Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET).
Patients U.S. adults (aged ≥18 years) hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 during March 1-December 31, 2020.
Measurements Monthly trends in weighted percentages of interventions and outcomes including length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit admissions (ICU), invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), vasopressor use and in-hospital death (death). Monthly hospitalization, ICU and death rates per 100,000 population.
Results Among 116,743 hospitalized adults, median age was 62 years. Among 18,508 sampled adults, median LOS decreased from 6.4 (March) to 4.6 days (December). Remdesivir and systemic corticosteroid use increased from 1.7% and 18.9% (March) to 53.8% and 74.2% (December), respectively. Frequency of ICU decreased from 37.8% (March) to 20.5% (December). IMV (27.8% to 8.7%), vasopressors (22.7% to 8.8%) and deaths (13.9% to 8.7%) decreased from March to October; however, percentages of these interventions and outcomes remained stable or increased in November and December. Percentage of deaths significantly decreased over time for non-Hispanic White patients (p-value <0.01) but not non-Hispanic Black or Hispanic patients. Rates of hospitalization (105.3 per 100,000), ICU (20.2) and death (11.7) were highest during December.
Limitations COVID-NET covers approximately 10% of the U.S. population; findings may not be generalizable to the entire country.
Conclusions After initial improvement during April-October 2020, trends in interventions and outcomes worsened during November-December, corresponding with the 3rd peak of the U.S. pandemic. These data provide a longitudinal assessment of trends in COVID-19-associated outcomes prior to widespread COVID-19 vaccine implementation.
Competing Interest Statement
Dr. Evan Anderson reports grants from Pfizer, grants from Merck, grants from PaxVax, grants from Micron, grants from Sanofi-Pasteur, grants from Janssen, grants from MedImmune, grants from GSK, personal fees from Sanofi-Pasteur, personal fees from Pfizer, personal fees from Medscape, personal fees from Kentucky Bioprocessing, Inc, personal fees from Sanofi-Pasteur, outside the submitted work. Dr. William Schaffner reports personal fees from VBI Vaccines, outside the submitted work.
This work was supported by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention through an Emerging Infections Program cooperative agreement (grant CK17-1701) and through a Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists cooperative agreement (grant NU38OT000297-02-00).
I confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained.
The details of the IRB/oversight body that provided approval or exemption for the research described are given below:
This activity was reviewed by CDC and was conducted consistent with applicable federal law and CDC policy. Sites participating in COVID-NET obtained approval from their respective state and local Institutional Review Boards, as applicable.
All necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived.
I understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance).
I have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines and uploaded the relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material as supplementary files, if applicable.
Disclaimer: The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by the authors do not necessarily reflect the official position of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, the United States Public Health Service, the CDC, or the authors’ affiliated institutions.
Créditos: Comité científico Covid