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The SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines have shown remarkable clinical efficacy, but questions remain about the nature and kinetics of T cell priming. We performed longitudinal antigen-specific T cell analyses in healthy individuals following mRNA vaccination. Vaccination induced rapid near-maximal antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses in all subjects after the first vaccine dose. CD8+ T cell responses developed gradually after the first and second dose and were variable.
Vaccine-induced T cells had central memory characteristics and included both Tfh and Th1 subsets, similar to natural infection. Th1 and Tfh responses following the first dose predicted post-boost CD8+ T cell and neutralizing antibody levels, respectively. Integrated analysis of 26 antigen-specific T cell and humoral responses revealed coordinated features of the immune response to vaccination.
Lastly, whereas booster vaccination improved CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in SARS-CoV-2 naïve subjects, the second vaccine dose had little effect on T cell responses in SARS-CoV-2 recovered individuals. Thus, longitudinal analysis revealed robust T cell responses to mRNA vaccination and highlighted early induction of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells.
Competing Interest Statement
ELP is consulting or an advisor for Roche Diagnostics, Enpicom, The Antibody Society, IEDB, and The American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association. SEH has received consultancy fees from Sanofi Pasteur, Lumen, Novavax, and Merk for work unrelated to this report. EJW is consulting or is an advisor for Merck, Elstar, Janssen, Related Sciences, Synthekine and Surface Oncology. EJW is a founder of Surface Oncology and Arsenal Biosciences.
EJW is an inventor on a patent (US Patent number 10,370,446) submitted by Emory University that covers the use of PD-1 blockade to treat infections and cancer. AS is a consultant for Gritstone, Flow Pharma, CellCarta, Arcturus, Oxfordimmunotech, and Avalia. La Jolla Institute for Immunology has filed for patent protection for various aspects of T cell epitope and vaccine design work.
Créditos: Comité científico Covid